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Thesaurus linguae Latinae (TLL)


Technical signs and symbols

Signs in the headword entry

The asterisk placed in front of the headword means that not all examples contained in the archives are cited in the article. In the article the abbreviation al. and/or such annotations as et saepe or et passim occur.
A question mark before the headword means that it is doubtful whether the word should be accepted in the lexicon.
Square brackets show that the word is to be eliminated from the lexicon.
Round brackets enclose a basic form restored by analogy.

Signs indicating groups of examples

For an explanation of the arrangement of the examples see Article structure.

Figures and letters marking the various levels of classification are used in the following order: I-II A-B 1-2 a-b α-β etc.
In long articles higher levels of classification may be set over these: caput prius - caput alterum and, above that, pars prior - pars altera. Short articles may begin at the level 1-2.
Brackets within a series of quotations serve to group passages together. There are two possibilities:
  1. The common feature linking the passages may be the repeated association of another word with the headword, for example an attributive associated with a substantive or a particular object with a verb. In this case the accompanying word is usually printed in widely spaced letters where it occurs before the bracket, and inside the bracket is either abbreviated to its initial letter or else omitted altogether:
  1. Passages which are comparable in content or other respects may be bracketed together; the common feature is then usually explained in italics at the beginning of the bracket:
Brackets with the above functions which occur inside other brackets usually take the square form. When this happens, the outer brackets enclosing them are generally printed in bold type:

Signs indicating the omission of examples

The criteria for the selection of examples quoted in an article are explained under 'Article Structure'.

The abbreviation al. and such annotations as et saepe or et passim show where material has been omitted (in that case a special sign is placed in front of the headword). Their precise function varies according to their position within a group of examples:
  1. In the middle of a sequence of quotations from several authors they indicate the omission of at least two examples from the last author named. For example the al. in radix vol. XI 2, 40, 57, means that at least two quotations of Ovid have been left out:
  1. At the end of a subsection or bracket:

    a. If the last author cited is of the period down to Apuleius, they indicate the omission of all later authors and possibly of examples from the last author cited. For example in radix vol. XI 2, 38, 28 at least two examples have been left out, either from PLIN. nat. or/and from authors after him:

  1. b. If the last author cited is later than Apuleius, they show that the passages cited are only a selection of those contained in the archives for the period from the mid-second century on, in other words the period for which the Thesaurus material consists of excerpts. For example in radix vol. XI 2, 42, 27, the al. signifies that at least two more examples from the time after Apuleius have been left out:

Presentation and explanation of examples

The use of various fonts

Upright capitals used for the author's name show that the passage contains the headword. Roman type is used for the abbreviated title, book and section reference of a passage containing the headword; and also for all quotations from Latin texts.
Italics are used for all material added by the compiler (headings, explanations etc.) and for references to passages which either do not contain the headword or are taken from Greek sources; also for alterations made for convenience of citation in a Latin text.

Signs within a quotation

Three dots within a quotation mean that one or more words in the context have been omitted at this point.
Pointed brackets enclose a supplement to the text.
Small round brackets, mainly in the text of inscriptions, enclose letters omitted through abbreviation (example from the article rapax).
Square brackets enclose letters or words which are to be deleted from the text (raditur should be read, not traditur). On square brackets used for grouping within a series of citations see here.
Small half-brackets enclose words which are referred to in a following bracket (in which the half-brackets are sometimes repeated).